There are Way more than two states of water

When it comes to states of matter, you’re probably familiar with the big three: solid, liquid, and gas. You may even be familiar with the more exotic (yet also more plentiful) plasma state. But those are just the states you see in everyday life. In extreme conditions like supercooled laboratory chambers or the cores of neutron stars, matter can take on any number of weird and wonderful states.

All matter is made of smaller particles. Take water, for instance. If you zoomed in on an ice cube, you’d see a latticework of individual water molecules. If you zoomed in on a water molecule, you’d see three individual atoms: two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. Those atoms, in turn, are made of even smaller parts: Hydrogen is made up of one proton and one electron, and oxygen is made up of eight protons, eight neutrons, and eight electrons. Protons and neutrons are made up of even smaller particles called quarks. (Quarks and electrons are what’s known as “elementary particles,” which mean they’re as small as small gets.)

States of matter, then, come down to the arrangement of those particles. (You may have heard the term phase of matter, which is technically different, but similar enough that many people use the two terms interchangeably.) The water in your ice cube is in a solid state. In a solid, the molecules are bound to one another by molecular forces, which makes it hold its shape and keep its volume fixed.

If you were to melt that ice cube, you’d have water in a liquid state. Here, the molecular forces would be weaker, leaving the molecules to move around a bit more but still stay close to one another. Liquids change their shape to fit their container (which is why people say that cats are liquid), and, like solids, they can’t be compressed.

Keep heating that liquid water, and you’ll get a gas. Gas particles move around and spread out much more than liquid particles. If it’s in a container, the gas will spread to fill it; if it’s not, the gas will spread out forever. Gas has no definite volume or shape.

Plasma is where the water example breaks down (literally — the energy required would break the molecular bonds and you wouldn’t have H2O anymore). Plasma is a hot ionized gas made up of highly charged particles. However, plasma is not the same thing as gas, since that electrical charge puts the stuff under the influence of any electric or magnetic fields nearby. While you might not be as familiar with this state of matter as you are with the previous three, plasma is, in fact, the most plentiful state in the observable universe, making up 99 percent of all observable matter. Stars, the jets that blast out of black holes, and even parts of Earth’s atmosphere are made up of plasma. If you’ve ever looked at a neon sign, you’ve been up-close and personal with this state of matter.

The states above are considered the four fundamental states of matter since they’re easily observable in nature. But there are plenty of other “non-classical” states of matter beyond those.

A few you’re intimately familiar with. Glass, for example. The molecules within glass aren’t as organized as they would be in a solid, but still more organized than a liquid. That makes glass an amorphous solid. Another state of matter is one you might be interacting with right this second. The liquid crystal in your phone or computer monitor’s liquid crystal display (also known as LCD) toes the line between the solid symmetry of a crystal and the disorganized flow of a liquid — it’s made up of particles that line up together but still flow easily.

There are also states of matter that only exist in the most extreme conditions. When you cool atoms to near absolute zero, you can get what’s known as a Bose-Einstein condensate, where all of those individual atoms coalesce into one object (that is, something that can be described by a single quantum wavefunction). It’s possible that this stuff could form invisible stars that we’re mistaking for black holes. Cooling things to very low temperatures also gives rise to a lot of super stuff: superconductors conduct electricity without resistance, superfluids flow without friction, and supersolids flow without friction but keep their shape.

These are only a handful of the many states of matter we know about, and in fact, there are probably even more to discover. But the next time someone asks you “liquid or solid?” in a rousing game of 20 Questions, try not to burst a brain cell.

Thanks for reading….

The ancient underground city was big enough to house 20000 people

Chicago, like a lot of other modern cities, has a hidden secret: It’s home to miles of passageways deep underground that allow commuters to get from one place to another without risking nasty weather. Los Angeles, Boston, New York, and Dallas all have their own networks of underground tunnels, as well. But there’s a place in Eastern Europe that puts those forgotten passages to shame. Welcome to Derinkuyu — the underground city.
Picture this. It’s 1963, and you’re on a construction crew renovating a home. You bring your sledgehammer down on a soft stone wall, and it all crumbles away, revealing a large, snaking passageway so long that you can’t see where it ends. This is the true story of how the undercity at Derinkuyu was (re-)discovered. While those workers knew they’d found something special, they couldn’t know just how massive their discovery had been.

Stretching 250 feet (76 meters) underground with at least 18 distinct levels, Derinkuyu was a truly massive place to live. Yes, live. There was room for 20,000 people to stay here, complete with all of the necessities (and a few luxuries) — fresh water, stables, places of worship, and even wineries and oil presses. It isn’t the only underground city in the area known as Cappadocia, but it’s the deepest one we know of, and for many years, it was believed to be the largest as well. (Another recently discovered location may have been home to even more people.

Stretching 250 feet (76 meters) underground with at least 18 distinct levels, Derinkuyu was a truly massive place to live. Yes, live. There was room for 20,000 people to stay here, complete with all of the necessities (and a few luxuries) — fresh water, stables, places of worship, and even wineries and oil presses. It isn’t the only underground city in the area known as Cappadocia, but it’s the deepest one we know of, and for many years, it was believed to be the largest as well. (Another recently discovered location may have been home to even more people.)

The Persians would have used those caves as well, as would all of the people to come after. Eventually, according to some sources, early Christians around the 2nd century C.E. took root in the caves as they fled Roman persecution. This pattern continued throughout the centuries and millennia to come — in fact, Greek Christians were still using the caves as late as 1923. It’s pretty incredible, then, that the caves would have been forgotten in the 40-odd years between their last residents and their “re-discovery.”

It’s more likely, then, that it wasn’t the caves themselves, but the extent of the caves that was forgotten. While the holes burrowed into the area’s fairy chimneys would have been obvious even from a distance, it’s likely that the people living in more modern accommodations never realized that the caves in the wilderness outside of the urban area reached 18 stories down.

This MIT student wants to contact aliens with a massive laser beam

If you’re looking to communicate with distant aliens, laser power is your best friend. A new early-stage study proposes creating a beacon from Earth that could be seen as far as 20,000 light-years away — or about 5,000 times further than the nearest star system from Earth, Alpha Centauri. It’s a new way to tell extraterrestrials we’re here.

In theory, all the project would need is a 1- to 2-megawatt laser. Scientists would focus the beam through a 30- to 45-meter telescope and then point the thing at space. The result would be a huge channel of infrared radiation that would be strong enough to see from far away — even with our nearby sun hogging a lot of the infrared energy in the neighborhood.

This signal would be visible across many star systems, but it’s the potentially habitable ones nearby that astronomers are most interested in. Another possibility (besides the Alpha Centauri system) is TRAPPIST-1, a star only 40 light-years away that may be home to three habitable exoplanets.

“If we were to successfully close a handshake and start to communicate, we could flash a message, at a data rate of about a few hundred bits per second, which would get there in just a few years,” said James Clark, a graduate aeronautics and astronautics student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and lead author of the study.

Can we built it???

Clark says it’s possible we could even make this signal with today’s technology — he describes it as “a challenging project, but not an impossible one.” At the least, it would generate a bit of an odd infrared signal that would mess up the signal our sun produces, which would attract some extra attention.

Clark says it’s possible we could even make this signal with today’s technology — he describes it as “a challenging project, but not an impossible one.” At the least, it would generate a bit of an odd infrared signal that would mess up the signal our sun produces, which would attract some extra attention.

But before turning this laser beacon on, Clark says we should consider some safety issues. The beam — even though it’s invisible — could hurt anyone’s vision if they looked in the wrong direction. It’s even powerful enough to mess up cameras of any orbiting spacecraft going through the beam’s path. One solution could be to build the laser on the moon. Clark emphasizes, though, that more solutions could come from other work — he was just interested, for now, if seeing if the technology was possible.

A Wise Counting

Emperor Akbar was in the habit of putting riddles and puzzles to his courtiers. He often asked questions which were strange and witty. It took much wisdom to answer these questions.

Once he asked a very strange question. The courtiers were dumb folded by his question.

Akbar glanced at his courtiers. As he looked, one by one the heads began to hang low in search of an answer. It was at this moment that Birbal entered the courtyard. Birbal who knew the nature of the emperor quickly grasped the situation and asked, “May I know the question so that I can try for an answer”.

Akbar said, “How many crows are there in this city?”

Without even a moment’s thought, Birbal replied “There are fifty thousand five hundred and eighty nine crows, my lord”.

“How can you be so sure?” asked Akbar.

Birbal said, “Make you men count, My lord. If you find more crows it means some have come to visit their relatives here. If you find less number of crows it means some have gone to visit their relatives elsewhere”.

Akbar was pleased very much by Birbal’s wit.

MORAL : A witty answer will serve its purpose.

Education of girl child


Girls’ education is essential for the proper social and economic development of the country. Both men and women move parallel to the two equal wheels in society. Therefore, both are important components of development and progress of the country. Thus whenever it comes to education, both of them need equal opportunity.

Benefits of education of girls in India

Girls’ education is essential in the country for the future of the country because women are the first teachers of their children who are the future of the country. Uneducated women can not contribute to family management and fail to take proper care of children. Thus the future generations may be weak. There are many benefits of girls’ education. Some are mentioned as follows.

  • Educated women are more capable of shaping their future.
  • Educated women are able to reduce poverty due to work and financially strong.
  • There is less risk of child mortality due to educated women.
  • Educated women are able to defend their children by 50% more than other women.
  • Educated women are less likely to get in touch with HIV / AIDS.
  • Educated women are less likely to be victims of domestic or sexual violence.
  • Educated women have reduced corruption and have changed the conditions that lead to terrorism.
  • Educated women are doing better to contribute to family income.
  • Educated women are healthy and they have a lot of self esteem and confidence.
  • Educated women help contribute and enrich their community.
  • Women who are educated have the ability to promote education in others.

Only a part of the nation can be educated by educating a man while educating a woman can educate the whole country. The lack of education of girls has weakened the powerful part of society. Therefore, women should have full control of education and they should not be considered as weak from men.

Contribution of girl’s duty and education

There are three roles that women play during their life – daughter, wife and mother. In addition to playing these important duties, he has to establish himself as a good citizen of the nation. Therefore, like boys, it is important to give different types of education to girls too. Their education should be in such a way that they can be able to fulfill their duties properly. Through education, they become completely mature in all areas of life. An educated woman well knows about her duties and rights. They can contribute to the development of the country as men.

Facts responsible for low rates of education of girls

There are many factors that are responsible for less education of women in society

  • Poverty
  • Distance
  • Parental negative thinking
  • Low school facilities
  • Religious Factors
  • Child marriage
  • Child labour


Although education is free, the cost of sending children to school is very high. It includes school costumes, stationery, books and vehicles costs, which is very high for families living below the poverty line. Even if they can not afford one-day meal, educational expenditure is very distant. This is the reason parents like to keep their daughter at home.


Elementary school is situated far away from the villages in many parts of India. It takes 4-5 hours to reach the school. Keeping in mind the security and other security factors, the parents refuse to go to school.


Girls at school sometimes have to face different forms of violence. They are harassed by school teachers, students and others involved in the school administration. Therefore, the girls’ parents think that girls can not be safe at that place and hence they are refused to go to school.

Negative behaviors

People generally think that a girl should cook, keep the house clean and learn domestic tasks because it is the first duty of the girl’s life. His contribution in household chores is more valuable than his education.

Child marriage

In the Indian society, cases of child marriage are still present. A girl is forced to marry at an early age and is often taken out of school at a very young age. Due to early marriage, they become pregnant at a young age and in this way they give their children all the time and they have no time left to study.

Child labor

This is also a major reason to stop girls from studying. This is the main factor in preventing study and work to earn money at an early age. Due to poverty, parents put pressure on girls to work at a younger age and for this reason girls are stopped from studies.

Religious Factors

India is a vast country and contains various religions. Some religious teachers have also refused to educate the girl. According to him, it is against their religion.Parents need to educate the girls about the qualities and benefits of education. This is not only the duty of the government but also the responsibility of the people around us. The best part is that our Prime Minister has made a very good initiative for the education of girls through the ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ campaign in the villages. According to him, if we want to develop our country then we have to educate all the girls.


India is now a major country on the basis of education of women. Indian history is full of talented women. It includes female philosophers such as Gargi, Visabbarra and Maitreya. Other famous women include Mirabai, Durgabati, Ahalyabia and Lakshmibai. In today’s time, all the great and historical women of India are the source of inspiration. We can never ignore their contributions to the society and the country.Women should be given equal opportunities in education like men and they should not be deprived of any development opportunities. Proper awareness program is essential for the importance and progress of the level of education of girls across the country, especially in rural areas. A knowledgeable woman can educate her entire family and the whole country.


List of Top Cryptocurrencies 2015 – 2018

  • Bitcoin
  • Litecoin
  • Ethereum
  • Bitcoincash & bitcoingold
  • Ripple (XRP)
  • IOTA
  • Dark coin (Dash)
  • Tether
  • Name coin
  • Nxt
  • Peercoin
  • Dogecoin

In our opinion, the most relevant cryptocurrencies here in 2018 are:

  • Bitcoin: Bitcoin is an easy pick. It was the first major usable cryptocurrency; it has the highest market cap; its coins trade at the highest cost of all cryptocurrencies (about USD 225 as of June 2015, but as high as $5,000 during early September 2017). Despite the big increase in price, Bitcoin seems to be the best choice for anyone entering the cryptocurrency space. It is the most familiar and invested-in coin. Primarily Bitcoin is the reason anyone is talking about cryptocurrency in the first place. You might not want to start a CPU-based Bitcoin mining company in 2017 or start buying coins for $5,000 each (which is fine since you can buy fractions of a coin) but it’s still going to take 1st place on our list.
  • Litecoin: Litecoin is probably the second most important digital coin [true in 2015, it is still relevant today]. It had the third-highest market cap as of June 2015, but today it sits closer to 7. Despite the decline, CPU mining is still sort of possible, people know what a Litecoin is, it uses essentially the same technology of Bitcoin, and it costs about 1/50th – 1/100th of what Bitcoin does (depending on the day). A Litecoin is a lot like a Bitcoin before the whole ‘Silk Road‘ controversy, or as some people would say “a Litecoin is like a Bitcoin except with a value closer to what a reasonable person would expect a digital coin to have in a rational market.”
  • Ethereum: Is probably the third most important coin [here in 2018, I’d argue that it is the second most important after Bitcoin]. Ethereum doesn’t have the longevity at the top like Litecoin, but it has some unique features and a market cap that make it a real contender. Most ICOs (Initial Coin Offerings) use Ethereum. It has a less intimidating cost that Bitcoin and has the second highest market cap. On that note, Ethereum classic is also notable. Ethereum is a spin-off (aka “hard fork”) from what isn’t today called Ethereum classic (like how our next up coin, Bitcoin cash, is a spin-off of Bitcoin.) NOTE: Ethereum is a fork of another relevant coin called Ethereum Classic.
  • BitcoinCash and Bitcoin Gold: BitcoinCash is a spin-off of bitcoin, meant to have faster transactions, voted on and implemented by the Bitcoin community. Bitcoin Gold is also a spin-off, the goal of that coin is to have a coin that can be mined with a GPU (graphics processor, like the ones AMD and NVIDIA make). It is too early to be sure, but these coins have a high market cap and could shape up to be top players over the long run. Keep your eye on them, but don’t expect them to be guaranteed the staying power of Bitcoin. They are interesting altcoins, but it’s unlikely either will ever truly challenge Bitcoin for the top spot. The concept here is that Bitcoin is so relevant that it is important to keep an eye on its forks.
  • Ripple (XRP): Ripple (properly known as XRP) tends to have a steady price due to its large supply. It has had staying power over time. Its a popular and speedy alternative to Bitcoin that often is less volatile than other coins toward the top of the list.
  • IOTA: IOTA is a popular coin with a large supply (meaning there are many MIOTAs out there). It has one of the highest market caps today due to the tech behind it being embraced by some big-name companies like Cisco Systems Inc, Volkswagen AG, and Samsung Group. Any coin in the top 10 by market cap is worth watching. IOTA is no exception.
  • Darkcoin (Dash): Darkcoin, known as Dash as of March 25, 2015 (dash=digital cash), but previously known as XCoin, has unique functionality. XCoin was developed by Evan Duffield who wanted to improve on Bitcoin but didn’t have the pull to do so. Thus, he developed his own coin. It takes less power to mine Dash than most coins. Using less energy to mine is important because mining coins is one of the most wasteful processes you can imagine. The wasteful mining process is key to security and stability of all coins that use a “proof-of-work” system. It prevents people from mining too fast. However, environmentally, it’s a nightmare. In 2015 we had said, “People know what a Darkcoin is. Hopefully, this familiarity rolls over to Dash” (today few remember XCoin and Darkcoin, and Dash is a well-known crypto). Back in 2015, Dash was one of the higher valued coins. Today that is still true, and Dash has performed almost as well competitors like Ethereum.
  • Tether: Tether is meant to reflect the price of the US dollar. There are some criticisms to consider. But if you want a stable coin for temporary use, Tether tends to be a good choice. It isn’t an investment; it is a place to park your value in crypto when you are in-between coins.

Below are coins that are no longer on our list of suggestions. They looked great in 2015, but they didn’t stand up over time. Consider we noted Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Dash in 2015, and we noted the coins below. If you invested in them at the time, you did very well. That said, being off the list doesn’t make these coins a bad bet; it just means they aren’t as attractive as they once were:

  • Namecoin: In 2015 Namecoin looked promising, here in 2017 there is a little less hype. Still, Namecoin is notable. Namecoin is almost the same as Bitcoin. It was the first “fork” of the Bitcoin software. It’s based on Bitcoin and has the same unit cap, but has a few tweaks in its data storage. Namecoin was originally just going to be an upgrade to Bitcoin, but people were nervous that it would pose issues. So Namecoin is similar to Bitcoin, but like all the currencies that are not-Bitcoin, it is worth a fraction of Bitcoin. Its solid background and reasonable price point make it a relatively good coin to invest in. Of all the coins noted so far, Namecoin has performed the most poorly so far. It is still priced very low in USD.
  • Nxt: Not only does this nifty coin sport a name similar to Steve Job’s other company; it uses a cool and different algorithm for producing coins. This algorithm – an implementation of a proof-of-stake scheme rather than proof-of-work – may be less burdensome on the environment and has long-term potential. It may be worth a tad less than the other coins we recommend; it is worth about a penny on the dollar on a good day. However, less cost per coin means you have less to lose if the coin value deflates. Nxt is like Namecoin. It had a super cool code but didn’t though perform at the same level as other cryptos (until late 2017 where it saw a notable price hike). It is still priced very low in USD.
  • Peercoin: Like Nxt, Peercoin (abbreviated PPC) uses a proof-of-stake system; in fact, it was the first proof-of-stake coin. It’s worth about $0.40 on the USD and has a market cap of almost ten million. This coin has everything going for it and might be a smart bet as far as cryptocurrency goes. As an bonus to the confidence and quality of the coin, Peercoin was developed by Sunny King. Sunny King is, or might be, the person who created Bitcoin or another coin, or maybe Bruce Wayne or Clark Kent. It’s hard to tell as the culture of cryptocurrency puts importance on peer-to-peer, code, and coin over developers. Still, he is important, and like-it-or-not little things like this could be the deciding factor in whether a coin sinks or swims in the new market. Peercoin has a story like Nxt and Namecoin where they are long-running coins.
  • Dogecoin: Dogecoin (like the “Doge” internet meme about a dog and misspelling) had the 7th highest Market cap as of June 2015. In 2017 it was still a contender although it was more of one early in 2017. Individual coins aren’t worth as much as other coins on the list, but it’s value and popularity have remained relatively steady despite notable highs and lows. Dogecoin uses the same essential technology as Bitcoin with a few important technical distinctions. Like the failed Coinye West, Dogecoin was just in it for the lolz (i.e., it was created as a joke), but unlike Coinye, Dogecoin became inexplicably popular. Why do we suggest a joke coin? Because it’s a popular coin and today the only funny part about it is the name (and it’s mascot and backstory). It’s a lot like Litecoin — a fairly priced coin with some degree consumer confidence. Dogecoin has, one might argue, turned their comedic origins into an excuse to make their coin “fun and friendly,” which was a smart long-term move. It’s also one of the only major cryptocurrencies with a .com Top-Level Domain name and is one of the few that attempts to reach an audience outside of techies and cryptography nerds. As of September 2017, Dogecoin had taken a beating in value. One could argue that its roots as a joke coin weren’t as great a long-term strategy as it had once seemed (although one could argue the volatility it has seen is just business as usual in the cryptocurrency space.)

Other honorable mentions: Cardano (ADA), Stellar Lumens (XLM), Zero-ex or 0x (ZRX), Tron (TRX), Zcash, EOS, NEO, NEM, Basic Attention Token (BAT), Monero (XMR), and a few others all have decent values, familiarity, and respectable market caps. Some even have better exchange rates currently then our top picks for coins, and who knows, any of these could be a top coin in the future. So, make sure not to dismiss the other forerunners (or even some odd altcoins with interesting code or large user bases are worth keeping an eye on). We could easily see one a given existing altcoin or even a new coin spring up to the top of the list at any moment (for example Verge accomplished this during an altcoin boom in 2017 – 2018). The cryptocurrency market is young and volatile, so anything could happen over time. The past is a good indicator of the future in crypto, but things change and the future is truly any coin’s game.

TIP: The top coins by market cap are usually the best bets. Most of the top coins today were toward the top of the list back in 2015. There are a few coins high on the list today that you should be wary of, for example, Bitconnect. There are a few new ones, like the Bitcoin forks, Bitcoin Cash and Bitcoin Gold, that are new to the list. Meanwhile, there are a few that didn’t stand up to the test of time, like Peercoin. As a rule of thumb, historically speaking, the higher the coin is on the list, the more solid it is an investment over time.

Note: In most cases, you’ll have a hard time trading anything other than Bitcoin, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, and Ethereum for actual fiat (fiat being the centrally issued money of nations). You can trade most coins at online cryptocurrency exchanges, and you can use some coins to buy certain things online, but converting an altcoin into fiat currency means converting to a major coin first (BTC or ETH generally). A coin having a theoretical value in USD doesn’t mean that anyone is going to give you USD or pay that rate for your coins. This is more like selling penny stocks or trading one baseball card for another than actually having money on hand. So, keep that and the volatility of the markets and coins in mind when investing.

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